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1. Nepotism

Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally limited when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692.[8] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.[12]

1. Nepotism

In the second book of the Kural literature, which forms a manual for governments and corporations, Valluvar suggests about nepotism and favouritism thus: "If you choose an unfit person for your job just because you love and you like him, he will lead you to endless follies."[13] According to him, nepotism is both evil and unwise.[4]

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.[14]

Nepotism can also occur within organizations, when a person is employed due to their familial ties.[16] It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.[17] One of the consequences of nepotism in an organization is the creation of a limitation in the organization's network of contacts, reducing the opportunities for negotiation with other social circles, which can lead to a reduction in the success and duration of organizations in the long term.[18]

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining a job or being paid more than other similarly situated people.[19] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees,[20] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name."[21] Employing intimate people favors perpetuating the ideas or goals of those who employ them, knowing that the people around them will face up to them. However, it can lead to a lack of competent staff or a reduction in productivity because even if the employees are not the best options for their functions, they will be protected by those who employ them.[22] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.[citation needed]

Nepotism is also frequent in academia where it is frequent for professors to have their partners, and sometimes children, hired by the same faculty in which they work.[35] Countries with high levels of corruption and higher education systems with low competition between universities are generally have higher levels of corruption in academia.[36] Italy has been noted for having particularly high levels of nepotism in its academic system, when compared to other developed nations.[37][38]

In Argentina, nepotism is a very common practice. Although there have been various attempts of reducing it,[39] it is difficult in a country where state jobs are used as a gratitude token or party favoritism.

Shortly after his appointment as the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney in 2001, Peter Jensen was accused, in an Australian Broadcasting Corporation interview, of nepotism after nominating his brother Phillip Jensen as Dean of Sydney and appointing his wife Christine Jensen to an official position in the Sydney diocese.[42]

Claims of nepotism have been made against Bruno Tobback, the son of senator and former minister Louis Tobback, a member of the Flemish socialists, became the Belgian federal government's minister for the pensions and environment at 35 in 2005.[48] Alexander De Croo, the son of former speaker of the Belgian parliament Herman De Croo, ran for the leadership of his father's party Open VLD at age 33.[49] Finally there is the example of Maya Detiège, the daughter of former mayor of the city of Antwerp Leona Detiège, who herself is the daughter of the former mayor of Antwerp Frans Detiège.[47]Among other examples are former minister Freya Vandenbossche and senator Jean Jacques De Gucht, being the daughter and son of respectively former minister Luc Vandenbossche and former minister Karel De Gucht.

For the past 3,000 years, nepotism has been common in China's clan and extended family based culture. Confucius wrote about the importance of balancing "filial piety with merit". The clan-based feudal system collapsed during Confucius' lifetime, yet nepotism has continued through the modern age.[51][52]

Many judges and advocates of the high courts and the Supreme Court of India are alleged to be appointed by exercising casteism, nepotism,[66][67][68] and favoritism, primarily due to the Supreme Court and the high court appointment process called Collegium[69] which recommends to the President, in a legally binding manner, the names of judges to be appointed or promoted to the higher judiciary. The various judicial services exams are also infamous for these practices.[70]

The Kapoor family,[71] one of the most prolific generational families involved in Indian cinema, have been known for bringing their children into the industry with their endorsements and influence.[citation needed] In June 2020 a fresh debate on nepotism followed soon after the suicide[72] of actor Sushant Singh Rajput, which fans believe was in reaction to efforts by Bollywood insiders to boycott him.[73] Filmmaker Karan Johar, who Rajput had worked with in the Netflix film Drive, was quickly accused of nepotism by actress Kangana Ranaut, with Rajput's fans calling for a boycott of Johar and his studio, Dharma Productions, as well as of actor Salman Khan and his brothers, who were accused of bullying outsiders in the past.[citation needed] Actors and actresses Alia Bhatt, Varun Dhawan, Janhvi Kapoor, Ishaan Khatter, Ananya Pandey, Athiya Shetty, Tiger Shroff, Arjun Kapoor and Sara Ali Khan, all of whom hail from film families, were also widely criticized.[74]

Suharto, Indonesia's second president, is involved in nepotism, alongside corruption and collusion (together, they are known as the KKN in Indonesian: korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme). Companies belonging to Suharto's children, particularly Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana ("Tutut"), Hutomo Mandala Putra ("Tommy"), and Bambang Trihatmodjo, were given lucrative government contracts and protected from market competition by monopolies. Examples include the toll-expressway company Jasamarga (monopolized by Tutut), the national car project Timor (monopolized by Bambang and Tommy), and the cinema market (monopolized by 21 Cineplex, which is owned by Suharto's cousin Sudwikatmono). The family is said to control about 36,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi) of real estate in Indonesia, including 100,000 m2 (1,100,000 sq ft) of prime office space in Jakarta and nearly 40% of the land in East Timor. Additionally, Suharto's family members received free shares in 1,251 of Indonesia's most lucrative domestic companies (mostly run by Suharto's ethnic-Chinese cronies), while foreign-owned companies were encouraged to establish "strategic partnerships" with the former Indonesian president's family companies.[75][76]

The appointment of Nurul Izzah as a senior economic and finance advisor by Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim resulted in accusations of nepotism.[110] The action was widely criticized by intellectuals, NGOs and even members of Pakatan Harapan party, who claimed it contravened principles of merit and fairness.[111]

Former President of Sri Lanka, Mahinda Rajapaksa, has been accused of nepotism, appointing three brothers to run important ministries and giving out other political positions to relatives, regardless of their merit. During his presidency, the Rajapaksa family held the ministries of finance, defence, ports and aviation, and highways and road development. The president's brother, Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, was given the post of Defence Secretary. He also controlled the armed forces, the police and the Coast Guard, and was responsible for immigration and emigration. Rajapaksa appointed his brother Basil Rajapaksa as minister of Economic Development. Together, the Rajapaksa brothers controlled over 70% of Sri Lanka's public budget. Mahinda Rajapaksa's eldest brother, Chamal Rajapaksa, was appointed as the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, and has held many other posts before, while his eldest son, Namal Rajapaksa, is also a member of the parliament and holds undisclosed portfolios.[116][117]

Boris Johnson, the former Prime Minister was accused of nepotism for having appointed his brother Jo Johnson to the House of Lords, having previously also appointed him to his Cabinet as Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation.[131]

In December 2012, a report from the Washington Post indicated various nepotism practices from the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia's Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA), including one family with five members working for the MWAA. One of the reasons given by the associate general counsel to defend the alleged nepotism was "if [the employees are] qualified and competed for [the positions] on their own, I don't see a problem with relatives working in the same organization."[134] The inspector general of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Congress pressured the MWAA to resolve practices of nepotism. Authority employees are no longer allowed to directly or indirectly influence hiring or promotion of relatives, as documented in their ethics policy.[135]

In 2017, President Donald Trump was accused of nepotism after appointing both his son-in-law Jared Kushner and his daughter Ivanka (married to Kushner) into advisory roles to the president.[140] In 2020, President Trump appointed his son Eric Trump's brother-in-law, Kyle Yunaska, to the position of NASA Deputy Chief of Staff. Yunaska holds a 2009 MBA and a 2007 Bachelor of Science in Management and Physics, both from East Carolina University. Yunaska was a paid government employee.[citation needed] 041b061a72


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